Protection of cultural assets and cultural heritage in Bukovina Long-term protection of cultural heritage means professionally protecting material assets from damage and digitally recording them, and anchoring intangible assets in the cultural memory of the local population and in international discourse. The heritage of linguistic, denominational and cultural diversity in Bukovina is characterized, on the one hand, by the close interaction of material and idealistic factors and, on the other hand, by the osmotic exchange between the capital Czernowitz and its rural surroundings. This project is committed to the digital as well as local preservation of these cultural assets. On the one hand, it is intended to digitally secure the outstanding architectural monument of the former residence and, on the other hand, to take effect using a concrete example of the diverse efforts of creating museums (Musealisierungsbestrebungen) in the region.
The University of Czernowitz: World Culture and Knowledge Transfer Founded in 1875, the Franz Joseph University, the ideal successor of which is today's National Jurij Fedkowytsch University, was at that time the most easterly German-language university in Europe and a beacon of educational policy that had an international impact—often through the teachers who were trained in the grammar schools there—which also radiated into the multicultural and rural environment and established a series of socially "upward mobility stories" in the region. In this context, an outstanding and exemplary (while, at the same time, ambivalent) biography is that of Leo Stern, who came from the multicultural, Bukovina village of Woloka and became one of the best-known historians of the GDR and served as rector of the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg in the 1950s. Such a curriculum vitae, taken as representative_—_as well as embedded in collective biographies—need to be anchored and presented in local museums. On the other hand, since 1955 the present university has had its campus and its most important premises and facilities in the former residence of the Orthodox Metropolitan for the Dioceses of Bukovina and Dalmatia, which was built between 1864 and 1882 according to the plans of the Czech architect Joseph Hlávka. It is considered a masterpiece of late 19th century architecture and was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011. To this day, the university fulfills its mission and offers important academic and educational opportunities in the region, and beyond, as well as, increasingly in the digital space. Tangible cultural assets as well as immaterial work for almost 150 years must be secured and appreciated in this way: committed to museums (Musealisierung) as well as—perhaps more urgently due to the war—securing the museums and their objects themselves. "Large" and "Small" Institutions: Interactions and Role Models For this reason the project is not only dedicated to the "large" architectural monument of the "Archbishop's Residence", but also focuses on the connection between the international, regional and local networking of the university. In this way, the tangible as well as intangible cultural heritage of the region becomes digitally accessible all over the world, but also supports being developed as a concrete museum (musealization). Top-down projects and "small" grassroots initiatives are equally appreciated in this way. In this sense, the project consists of three interrelated and jointly managed and administered sub-projects.
The third sub-project is in turn divided into two concrete measures with two professionally related institutions at the university and in a village community: World Cultural Heritage "Archbishop's Residence" (digitization) University Museum: Historical Impact of the University of Chernivtsi (museum preservation) Regional Museums of Czernowitz and Voloka: Urban-rural linkages in multicultural space (museum preservation) Sub-project 1: World Cultural Heritage "Archbishop's Residence" (Digitization) The object, the former seat of the Orthodox Metropolitan of Bukovina and Dalmatia (until 1918), is the most important architectural monument and a landmark of the Ukrainian city of Czernowitz (Tscherniwzi). The ensemble, consisting of several massive brick buildings, was built between 1864 and 1882 according to the plans of the Czech architect Joseph Hlávka. After the disintegration of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, Bukovina was occupied by Romanian troops. On November 28, 1918, the annexation of Bukovina to the Kingdom of Romania was decided in the residence. The Metropolitanate was dissolved and the Bukovinian part was incorporated into the Romanian Orthodox Church structure. Since 1955, the building complex has been used as the campus and administrative headquarters of the university. A masterpiece of historicist architecture of the late 19th century, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2011. Project implementation: The Lemberg (Lviv) based company Skeiron is carrying out the digital registration of the building ensemble. Two methods are used: Laser scanning and photogrammetry. Laser scanners measure angles and distances. Laser devices are moved and scans taken from many different positions. In photogrammetric scanning, facades and all interiors with wall paintings, mosaics and possibly other colored images are recorded, which is important for reproducing the original color tones. In rooms where there are no valuable color images, this procedure can be omitted. In the final phase, data from laser scanning, camera shots, and drones are merged. From this set of data, the final model is created. This 3D model can be used in many ways: as a basis for measurements, drawings, touchable models (a contribution to accessibility) and especially for restoration and renovation. A representation in the "metaverse" should also be considered in the future. Responsible persons Project management: Vice Rector Prof. Dr. Tamara Marusyk Contact on site: Dr. Oxana Matiychuk International Office of the University and Zentrum Gedankendach (Cultural Center): Dr. Olha Kravchuk, Natalija Masijan (Project Coordination)
Sub-project 2: University Museum - Historical Impact of the University of Czernowitz (museum preservation)
Equipping the museum with professional means to secure the objects, moving them to the museum premises and setting up/equipping the museum. The university's historical museum is dedicated to the history of the university from its founding in the Habsburg era as the Franz Joseph University through the "Greater Romanian period" and the communist decades to the development since Ukrainian independence in 1991. It is in its the construction phase. Premises in the main university building have already been furnished, a concept has been prepared. Due to the war, there is a lack of funds to properly secure the museum and its objects. Project implementation: The focus is on the procurement of suitable furnishings and, in particular, equipment to protect the objects in the museum from damage and, at least in a first step, to record them by means of photographic documentation. Responsible persons: Project management: Vice Rector Prof. Dr. Tamara Marusyk Contact on site: Dr. Oxana Matiychuk International Office of the University and Zentrum Gedankendach (Cultural Center): Dr. Olha Kravchuk (project coordinator)
Sub-project 3: Regional Museums of Czernowitz and Voloka:
Urban-rural linkages in multicultural space (museum preservation) Equipping the museum with professional means to secure the objects, moving them to the museum premises and setting up/equipping the museum. The Museums and their Environment: The ethnographic museum affiliated to the Faculty of History, Political Science and International Relations of the University of Chernivtsi is dedicated to the history and ethnography of the city and the region in all its multicultural and trans-cultural aspects on the basis of the academic work at the university. More so, it should serve as a point of orientation and enable the transfer of "know-how" to other cultural initiatives in the region. The Territorial Municipality of Voloka (ukr. Волока; rum. Voloca pe Derelui) is a "typical" Bukovinian municipality with a historically diverse population. Even today, the municipality has a high percentage of Romanian-speaking residents. The community with its principal town Voloka is located about 16 km south of Czernowitz. The interactions, past and present, with the "Romanian south" of the region, on the one hand, and with the historical capital Czernowitz, on the other hand, are clearly visible and represent an aspect of the local and Bukovina culture that is worth preserving and that radiates far beyond the borders of the region, not least because of the great upheavals of the 20th century. The regional museum, established by the municipality on its own initiative, is not only dedicated to its multicultural heritage, but also presents the history(s) of relations and education of the village communities, in which the university town of Czernowitz has generally played, and still plays, a central role. The museum should also serve as a model for other such initiatives in the region in the preservation of cultural heritage. Professional cooperation with the university or with the ethnographic museum of the university, which has already been secured on a concrete level, represents an essential aspect in this context. Implementation: The focus is on the procurement of suitable furnishings and, in particular, equipment to protect the objects in the museum from damage and, at least in a first step, to record them by means of photographic documentation. Responsible persons: Project manager for the ethnographic museum of the university: Vice rector Prof. Dr. Tamara Marusyk Project manager for the regional museum Voloka: Dumitru Penteleichuk (lawyer in the territorial municipality Voloka) Contact between university and municipality: Serhij Lukanjuk Head of the International Office of the university, advisor for the museum in Voloka: Dr. Olha Kravchuk (project coordinator)